What is Knee Voltage of PN- Junction Diode?

The voltage at which the forward-biased diode starts conducting is called knee voltage or cut-in voltage of the PN junction diode.

Liquid Penetrant Testing (DP Test)
Liquid Penetrant Testing (DP Test)

The semiconductor diode is formed by bringing the n-type and p-type materials together. When the p- and n-type materials are joined, the electrons and holes in the region are combined, and a region is formed in which carriers are absent. This region of uncovered positive and negative ions is called the depletion region. The depletion region of the PN junction diode when the diode is not biased is as given below.

depletion layer of pn junction diode

The width of the depletion layer reduces when the diode is forward biased, and conversely the width of the depletion layer increase when the diode is reverse biased. The electric field is formed in the depletion region. For conduction of the diode, an external electric field needs to be applied across the diode to overcome the electric field formed in the depletion region.

What is Barrier Potential or Built-in potential?

The potential difference required to move the electrons through the electric field is called the barrier potential. The formula of the barrier potential or built-in voltage is given below.

Barrier Potential Formula

diode built in voltage formula

From the above, it is clear that barrier potential depends on the amount of doping, temperature, the carrier concentration of the undoped semiconductors, and the type of semiconductor material. 

What is knee voltage of PN- Junction Diode?

When the p- and n- junction is joined the barrier potential or built-in potential is formed. If the diode is forward biased when the battery’s positive terminal is connected to the anode and the negative terminal is connected to the cathode, the diode will not conduct unless the battery voltage is more than the barrier potential. The barrier potential of the germanium and silicon diode is 0.3 and 0.7 respectively. For silicon diode, if the battery voltage is more than 0.7 the diode starts conducting in forward biased.

The minimum voltage at which the diode starts conducting heavily and current starts increasing rapidly in a forwarding biased state, the applied voltage is called knee point voltage or diode cut-in voltage. The concept of knee point voltage of the diode can be further understood with the help of forwarding characteristics of the diode.

V-I graph of PN- junction diode knee voltage

The diode is forward biased by applying a positive and negative voltage at the anode and cathode of the diode respectively. The applied voltage is increased gradually from zero voltage. The silicon diode does not conduct till the voltage reaches 0.7 volts. The germanium diode does not conduct till voltage reaches 0.3 volts. The 0.7 volts and 0.3 volts are the cut-in or knee voltage of the silicon and germanium diodes respectively. When the applied voltage reaches cut-in or knee voltage the diode starts heavily conducting.

Now, we will further understand the knee voltage of the diode with help of a numerical problem.

knee point voltage or cut-in voltage of PN junction diode

Calculate circuit current.
Knee point voltage of diode(Vk)  = 0.7 V
Applied Voltage(V)                         = 5.0 V
Current limiting resistor(R)         = 50 Ohms
Circuit Current (ID) = (V – Vk)/R                                    
=  (5 – 0.7)/50                                    
=  4.3/50
ID = 0.086 A =86 mA

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