The slow movement of electrons in the conductor when an EMF is applied across the conductor is called **Drift Velocity**. The electrons do not move in a straight line because of the collision of electrons within the conductor. Thus, the collision of electrons with the conductor surface and the collision of electrons with each other distract the path of electrons and reduce the velocity of electrons, and the electrons move randomly in the conductor.

The randomly moving electrons exchange energy during a collision, and the energy moves forward in the opposite direction to the current.

**Table of contents**

**Drift Velocity Definition**

The drift velocity is the electrons’ average velocity when subjected to an electric field. Drift velocity means the slow movement of electrons in the opposite direction of the electric field. The movement of electrons happens in the axial direction because of the movement of electrons in a plane. Thus, the electron’s velocity is considered in the axial direction for the calculation of the drift velocity.

The velocity at which free electrons moves slowly and drifted towards the positive supply source of external electric field is called the Drift velocity.

The SI unit of drift velocity is m/s. It is also measured in m^{2}/(V.s).

**Net Velocity of the Electrons:**

Every material above absolute zero temperature consists of some free electrons moving at random velocity. However, the net velocity is zero when no external electric field is applied. The electrons move towards the positive potential when the external electric field is applied around a conductor.

The movement of electrons does not happen in a straight line because the electrons collide with the atom and lose their kinetic energy. But the electric field causes electrons to accelerate again, and electrons start moving in the same direction. Thus, the net velocity of electrons will be in the same direction as the electric field.

**Drift Velocity Derivation**

When a charged particle(electron) is placed in an electric field E, the force(F) experienced by the particle is;

Acceleration of each electron is;

From equation(1) & 2, we get;

The initial thermal velocity of the electron is u_{1}, the final velocity is v_{1}, and the time taken for this collision is t.

The thermal velocity u_{1} can be expressed as;

Similarly, the thermal velocities of other electrons are;

The average velocity of all the electrons is the drift velocity and can be calculated as follows.

The average velocity is;

Putting the value of thermal velocities from equations 4,5 & 6 in equation 6, we get;

Therefore,

The average thermal velocity of electrons inside the conductor is zero when no electric field is applied to the conductor. Therefore, from the equation 10,

Therefore, equation 10 can be written as;

The equation 11 can be rewritten as;

Therefore,

Putting the value of a from the equation 3, we get

**Drift Velocity Formula**

The formula for Drift Velocity is given as follows

Let us understand some important terms used in the drift current formula.

**Average Relaxation Time**

The time interval between two successive collisions of electrons in a conductor when an electric field is applied to it. It is denoted by τ(tau).

We can express the average relaxation time by the following formula.

**Mobility (μ)**

The mobility of electrons depends on the applied electric field to a conductor. The mobility shows how quickly a charged particle can move through a conductor. The **electron mobility is the ratio of the drift velocity** of an electron to its applied electric field.

Putting the value of V_{d}, we get;

**Solved Problems on Drift Velocity**

**Problem 1: When a potential difference V is applied across a conductor at a temperature T, calculate the drift velocity of electrons.**

**Solution:**

**Problem 2: The mobility of electrons in a silver conductor is 6.9973 × 10^{-3} m^{2}/v/s, and the Electric field along the wire(E) = 120 volts/m; calculate the drift velocity of electrons.**

**Solution-**