Last Updated on February 2, 2024 by Electricalvolt
What is NGR?
NGR-Neutral Grounding Resistance. NGR limits the ground fault current to the equipment’s safe operating current range to protect all the electrical equipment. The NGR is connected to the neutral point of the star point of the transformer and alternator.
Why is NGR required for Transformer and Alternator?
When the supply system is balanced, the current flowing through all three phases will be balanced, and as a result, the neutral-to-ground current is zero.
However, when the three-phase supply system gets unbalanced because of an earth fault, arcing fault, or transient voltage, the current in all three phases gets unbalanced. The unbalanced current starts flowing from the neutral to the earth point. If the neutral point is directly connected to earth(solid earth), a large current will flow through the transformer winding to neutral and earth. The large current can damage the equipment.
The neutral grounding resistor is connected between the neutral and earth point to limit the fault current to the safe value of the transformer. The NGR is connected at the star point of the transformer, as given in the figure below.
NGR Resistance Value Calculation
The NGR resistance value must be selected based on the following factors.
- The system voltage
- During an earth fault, the system capacitance current discharges through the NGR. The NGR should be capable of handling that current.
- The resistance value must be selected such that the tripping relay must sense the fault current. If the NGR resistance value is too high, the relay may not sense the fault current.
The value of NGR resistance is;
R = VL-N/ If
R= (VL-L/√3) /If
Solved problem on NGR resistance value selection
Lets the transformer secondary voltage is 6.6 KV, and the transformer full load current is 1400 Amps.
The line to neutral voltage is
VL-N = 6600/√3
VL-N =3810 Volts
The transformer full load secondary current is 1400 amperes. Therefore, the resistance value required to limit the fault current to the transformer’s maximum current carrying capacity is;
R = V/I
R = VL-N/ I
R= 2.72 Ω
NGR Resistance Specifications
- Location: Indoor/Outdoor
- Cooling : Air Natural(AN)
- Ambient Temperature : 50° C
- Rated Voltage: Specify the phase voltage of the system
- Rated Current: Specify full load secondary current of the transformer
- Rated Resistance
- Allowable tolerance in NGR resistance : +/- 10 %
- Temperature rise: 375° C
- Time rating: 10 Seconds