# Standard Resistor Series Values-E3, E6, E12, E24, E48 & E96

Standard resistor series values, including E3, E6, E12, E24, E48, and E96, are used to find the ideal components for your electronic projects.

The E-series is a system of preferred values of electronic components like resistors, capacitors, inductors, and Zener diodes used in an electronic circuit. It consists of the E3, E6, E12, E24, E48, E96 and E192 series. These are sets of standardized components used in the electronics industry. This series was originally developed by the Electronic Industry Alliance (EIA) standard to simplify the selection of components of certain values and to ensure the availability of certain values of the components for use in electronic circuits.

The E-series consists of the E3, E6, E12, E24, E48, E96, and E192 series, where the number followed by the letter ‘E’ denotes the quantity of logarithmic value called “steps per decade.” It is possible, theoretically,  to produce components of any value. However, there is always the need for inventory simplification and a universal standard of the components. This has led the industries to settle on the E-series standard for different electronic components. Each series represents a different level of precision and quality of making of the components.

## What is a “Decade” and “Steps per Decade”?

Decade: A tenfold change in a particular property in electronics is known as a Decade. One decade of resistor values includes all resistors having resistance values between 1 and 10 Ohms. Similarly, the next decade includes all resistors between 10 and 100 Ohms; this is how all other decadal values are considered.

Steps per Decade: Also known as values per decade. This refers to how many different resistor values are there within a particular decade or the tenfold range. For example, if there are three resistor values per decade, it means that there are three different resistors available for each tenfold change in resistance. This series is, therefore, denoted by E3. Similarly, the E6 series has six resistors each decade; the E12 has twelve of them per decade, and so on.

## ResistorsE-series Values and Tolerance Band

The standard resistor values are organized into a set of series of values known as E-series. The different values within each series are separated such that the top of the tolerance band of one value and the bottom of the tolerance band of the next one do not overlap. The values are chosen in such a way that when the component is manufactured, it will end up in a range of roughly equally spaced values in geometric progression on a logarithmic scale.

Each E-series subdivides each decade into steps of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, and 192 values. This subdivision ensures that the maximum error or the tolerance band is divided in the order of ±40%, ±20%, ±10%, ±5%, ±2%, ±1%, and ±0.5%, respectively. The E192 series is used for ±0.25% and ±0.1% tolerance resistors. However, the E48, E96, and E192 series are not commonly available as the tolerance band is too narrow for any practical application. The E6 and E12 resistors are available in virtually all types of resistors. E24 series has a much closer tolerance and is only available in highly sensitive applications.

## Resistor E-series values

Let’s have an overview of each resistor value series:

### Resistor E3 Series

The E3 series is the most basic series among the E range. It is the least precise series and consists of just three values per decade – 1.0, 2.2, and 4.7. This series value is seldom used as such because the respective tolerance band is too wide for any practical application. These values are useful for rough calculations and general applications where precision is not that critical.

### E6 Series

The Resistor E6 series includes six values per decade – 1.0, 1.5, 2.2, 3.3, 4.7 and 6.8. As evident, the values per decade in E6 are greater than that of E3; hence, the E6 series provides better precision and quality than the E3 series. The E6 series of components are commonly used in less critical applications.

### E12 Series

The E12 series has twelve values or steps per decade and hence provides better precision as compared to both the E3 and E6 series. The values per decade in the E12 series are – 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.2, 2.7, 3.3, 3.9, 4.7, 5.6, 6.8, and 8.2. It’s widely used in applications where moderate precision is required.

### E24 Series

The E24 series has twenty-four values or steps per decade and hence provides better precision as compared to both the E6 and E12 series. The values per decade in the E24 series are – 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, 2.7, 3.0, 3.3, 3.6, 3.9, 4.3, 4.7, 5.1, 5.6,6.2, 6.8, 7.5, 8.2 and 9.1.

### E48 Series

The resistor E48 series has forty-eight values or steps per decade and hence provides better precision as compared to both the E12 and E24 series. The values per decade in the E48 series are tabulated below.

### Resistor E96 Series

The resistor E96 series has ninety-six values or steps per decade and hence provides better precision as compared to both the E24 and E48 series. The values per decade in the E96 series are tabulated below.

E-96 Resistors Value